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A Short History of Christmas: From Ancient Times to Today

Christmas, one of the most beloved and widely celebrated holidays in the world, holds a rich history and traditions that span millennia. From its humble beginnings in ancient times to the grandeur and global significance it commands today, the story of Christmas is a remarkable journey through time, cultures, and customs.

four red advent candles on pine foliage

In this blog, we take a sleigh ride through the evolution of Christmas, tracing its origins, transformations, and the enduring spirit that has captivated hearts for generations.

We cover:

What Is Christmas: Understanding the History and Origin

christmas bauble with nativity silhouette

In the tapestry of human history, few festivals have resonated with as much joy and significance as Christmas. This celebrated holiday, observed globally, conjures up images of twinkling lights, the infectious laughter of loved ones, and the warmth of shared memories. But what are the roots of this beloved occasion?

What is the origin of the word Christmas?

Christmas, stemming from the term "Christ's Mass", holds a cherished place in the hearts of millions. A beacon for Christian communities worldwide, this day commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, signifying hope, salvation, and divine love introduced to humanity. The historical underpinnings of Christmas are interwoven with faith, ancient traditions, and cultural integrations.

What are pagan Christmas traditions?

Interestingly, the initial Christian communities didn't observe Jesus' birth - commonly known as the Nativity. But as Christianity burgeoned, forging a cohesive identity became paramount. The church aimed to eclipse pagan festivities, primarily the winter solstice—symbolizing the sun's rebirth—with significant Christian events. December 25th, mirroring the timing of solstice celebrations, was strategically chosen, harmonizing the message of Jesus as the world's spiritual light.

Pagan Tributes and their Everlasting Imprint

Winter Solstice's Revered Role:

Ancient civilizations, from the Celts to the Romans, held the winter solstice in high esteem. As days began to lengthen, it signified the sun's revival and the impending spring—a period of renewal and rejuvenation. This optimism seamlessly blended with the Christian ethos of hope and rebirth.

Yuletide Revelries and the Emblematic Yule Log:

The Germanic festival of 'Yuletide' encompassed celebrations spanning from late December to early January. Central to this was the burning of the Yule log, a ritual believed to cleanse the air of past year's events and ward off malevolent spirits.

Christianity Embraces Pagan Rituals:
evergreen tree with lights in snowy landscape

As Christianity expanded, it absorbed and redefined several pagan customs. Evergreens, once a pagan emblem of everlasting life, graced Christian homes during Christmas, symbolizing eternal life with Christ. Likewise, the practice of gift-giving, reminiscent of Roman Saturnalia's traditions, was rebranded, drawing inspiration from the Three Wise Men's offerings to infant Jesus.

This synthesis of traditions, beliefs, and practices, both pagan and Christian, has moulded the rich and diverse mosaic of Christmas celebrations we recognize today. The story of Christmas is more than just a date; it's an evolving testament to humanity's innate desire for hope, joy, and unity.

History of Christmas in South Africa

South Africa, with its rich blend of cultures and traditions, offers a unique perspective on Christmas celebrations. Rooted deeply in its history is the fusion of various customs, especially the melding of northern hemisphere winter solstice celebrations with Christian festivities. The story of Christmas in South Africa is, in many ways, the story of the country itself - a narrative of adaptation, incorporation, and reinvention.

colourful streetscape in bokaap

Historians are still debating the exact time frame of when Christmas celebrations began in South Africa. However, what's clear is that early Christian settlers in the region sought to infuse their traditional winter solstice festivities with their newfound environment. This led to a creative blending of customs, which over centuries evolved into distinct South African traditions.

One of the most notable adaptations is the shift from cold, snowy imagery to warm, summery scenes. Instead of white Christmases with snowmen and fireplaces, South Africans often find themselves celebrating under the blazing sun, turning to braais (barbecues) as a festive meal choice. These braais, often held outdoors amidst nature, encapsulate the spirit of community that's integral to South African culture. Families, neighbors, and friends gather, sharing stories, laughter, and delicious grilled delicacies.

Moreover, Christmas in South Africa transcends the boundary of religion. While its roots are Christian, the celebration has taken on a more universal appeal, resonating with people of different faiths and backgrounds. This inclusivity is evident in the carol singing, which can be heard not just in churches but in public spaces, markets, and even on streets.

The gifts, too, have a touch of South African soul. Instead of conventional presents, many choose handcrafted items, each telling a story of the region's rich heritage and craftsmanship. Whether it's beadwork, pottery, or intricately woven baskets, the gifts are not just material objects but a piece of South Africa's heart.

In cities like Cape Town and Johannesburg, Christmas markets are bustling with energy. Locals and tourists alike wander the stalls, enjoying the festive atmosphere, the aroma of traditional food, and the harmonious sound of carols in the air. It's a time of unity, where people from all walks of life come together to celebrate life, love, and hope.

Christmas traditions in South Africa, though rooted in ancient practices, have been reshaped by the South African spirit, making them unique and memorable.

Who Invented Santa Claus?

Santa Claus, a universal symbol of festivity and merriment, is not just an emblem of contemporary Christmas celebrations but is deeply rooted in ancient history, evolving through the interweaving of various cultural and historical threads. His journey from a revered monk to a jolly gift-giver is captivating and truly speaks to the heart of the season.

Jolly Old St Nicholas

St Nicholas statue in Myra Turkey

In the 3rd century, in the town of Myra in modern-day Turkey, lived a monk named St. Nicholas. Renowned for his generosity and kindness, St. Nicholas had a penchant for secret gift-giving. One of the most famous tales recounts his act of placing gold coins in the shoes of three destitute sisters, saving them from a grim fate. His altruistic actions and miracles earned him the title of patron saint for children and sailors.

Transformation Across Cultures and Time

With the spread of Christianity, the legend of St. Nicholas traversed borders. By the Middle Ages, his tale was firmly embedded in European cultures. In the Netherlands, he was revered as "Sinterklaas", an elderly, bishop-like figure who travelled on a horse, gifting sweets to well-behaved children.

Sinterklaas standing next to canal

The modern image of Santa Claus, however, owes its formation to the melting pot of American settler-colonial culture. Dutch immigrants in New York celebrated St. Nicholas's feast day, and soon, "Sinterklaas" phonetically transformed into "Santa Claus". This figure fused with British and Celtic folk traditions of Father Christmas, a cheerful old man who heralded the spirit of togetherness during Yuletide.

It was the 19th century when Santa's image began to solidify. In 1822, Clement Clarke Moore's poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas", more commonly known as "The Night Before Christmas", portrayed Santa as a jolly, rotund man flying in a sleigh led by reindeer, setting the foundational imagery for modern Santa Claus.

Father Christmas in Sleigh on a winter's night

Modern-Day Depictions and Celebrations

Today's Santa Claus is a merry blend of myths and traditions. He's seen as a portly, rosy-cheeked old man with a white beard, donning a red suit with white fur trim. Santa's image has been immortalized in countless films, songs, and stories. His North Pole workshop, managed by industrious elves crafting gifts, and his worldwide journey on Christmas Eve in a sleigh guided by reindeer, most notably Rudolph with his bright red nose, are crucial to the contemporary Christmas narrative.

A vital shift in Santa's depiction occurred in the 20th century when Coca-Cola commissioned illustrator Haddon Sundblom to craft a Santa image for its winter advertising campaigns. Sundblom's Santa was joyful, rotund, and radiated warmth — aligning perfectly with the beverage brand's cheerful image. This depiction reinforced and popularized the modern view of Santa Claus, forever linking him with the warmth and joy of the holiday season.

coca cola santa claus sitting in chair surrounded by toys

Interestingly, while Santa's core narrative remains relatively consistent, regional variations exist. In parts of Europe, he is accompanied by figures like Krampus, a horned entity that punishes naughty children, presenting a contrasting balance to Santa's generosity.

But Santa Claus is more than just a festive figure; he is a symbol of hope, generosity, and the spirit of giving. His evolution from a kind-hearted monk to the iconic figure of merriment we know today is a testament to humanity's penchant for creating symbols of hope and joy, especially during the festive season.

When Christmas Was Cancelled

Though today Christmas is widely celebrated and beloved, it hasn't always enjoyed universal acceptance. The history of Christmas in the 17th century is punctuated by a surprising chapter: its outright ban in England.

In the 1640s, a wave of puritanical sentiment washed over England. Oliver Cromwell and his Puritan Parliament disapproved of Christmas due to its perceived association with Catholicism and the excessive, unruly revelries it inspired. To them, these boisterous celebrations were a departure from the sober piety they championed. This led to an official decree in 1647, where Christmas and its associated festivities were outlawed. The ban wasn’t merely a light admonition. Shops were required to stay open, churches were shut, and anyone found celebrating or attending a special church service could face penalties.

Yet, the English populace's love for Christmas could not be quashed so easily. Many resisted the ban, leading to pro-Christmas riots in places like Canterbury, where people demanded their churches be reopened for Christmas services. Despite the Puritan grip on the nation, by the time of King Charles II's restoration in 1660, the ban was lifted, restoring Christmas to its former glory.

However, England wasn’t the only place where Christmas faced strict opposition. Across the Atlantic, the early pilgrims who settled in Massachusetts shared Cromwell's Puritan beliefs and similarly distaste for Christmas. The celebration of Christmas was officially outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681. The holiday was associated with rowdiness, and the idea of wasting a day that could be spent working was unfathomable to the hard-working settlers. A fine was imposed on anyone found engaging in festivities or refraining from labor on Christmas Day. It wasn’t until the mid-19th century, with the influx of various immigrant groups and their varied customs, that Christmas began to evolve into the widely celebrated holiday in the U.S., blending many traditions.

Is Christmas on the 24th or 25th?

Christmas is a global celebration, with each region, country, or even household cherishing its own set of traditions. While December 25th is universally recognized as Christmas Day, there's a significant portion of the world that emphasizes the celebrations of the 24th, known as Christmas Eve. But what exactly makes this eve so special, and why do some places prioritize it over the day itself?

Christmas Eve, for many, is the pinnacle of the Advent season, a period of anticipation and preparation for the commemoration of Jesus' birth. The evening sets the stage for the grand festivity of Christmas. With homes lit up, carols echoing, and families uniting, there's a distinctive enchantment in the air. The tradition of attending midnight masses stems from the belief that Jesus was born at midnight. As the clock strikes twelve, churches worldwide illuminate, resonating with hymns and prayers celebrating the Savior's birth.

Moreover, several countries and cultures, particularly in Europe, have historically marked Christmas Eve as the primary day of celebration. In many such places, it's customary for families to come together for a lavish feast on the 24th. The dishes served, the rituals performed, and even the time of gift-giving are distinct to each culture. In some traditions, children eagerly await the arrival of gifts not from Santa Claus, but figures like 'Baby Jesus' or 'The Christmas Angel.'

There's also a historical facet to this preference for the eve. The article from the Economic Times highlights that the Julian calendar, which predates the Gregorian calendar we use today, marked December 24th as the winter solstice. As Christian leaders aimed to replace pagan traditions with Christian ones, the significant pagan celebration of the winter solstice got intertwined with the Christian celebration of Jesus' birth. Thus, over time, Christmas Eve took precedence in certain cultures due to its association with the solstice.

Meanwhile, Christmas Day, December 25th, has its own profound significance. It's the culmination of the Advent season and is honored as the day Jesus was born. The merriment continues with feasting, singing, and, in many places, attending church services.

But Is Christmas Really the Day Jesus Was Born?

The widespread consensus marks December 25th as the day to honor Jesus' birth. But was it the precise day He was born? The narrative is shrouded in layers of historical, astrological, and scriptural interpretations, leaving room for varied theories. But, in short, the answer is no.

Early Christian factions proposed spring dates, while others believed in distinct winter dates. However, the date's selection isn't merely arbitrary; it's a culmination of tradition, theology, and perhaps even a touch of astronomical wonder. While the exact date remains an enigma, the significance of the celebration remains undiminished for believers worldwide.

Unique Christmas Celebrations from Around the World

Christmas, while universally celebrated, varies incredibly in its traditions and festivities across countries, reflecting a medley of regional customs, historical influences, and local charm. Let's embark on a journey to explore some of these fascinating celebrations.

Japan: KFC For Christmas

people lining up outside KFC on street corner in Japan

Christmas isn't a national holiday in Japan, but its popularity has grown due to western influences. Curiously, the Japanese have developed a unique custom of eating KFC for Christmas dinner. This quirky tradition began in the 1970s, when KFC launched a marketing campaign promoting "Kentucky for Christmas!" It was an instant hit, and now, families often pre-order their festive buckets weeks in advance.

Venezuela: Rolling in to Christmas Mass

In Caracas, the capital city, there's a peculiar and joyous Christmas Eve tradition. Streets are closed off to cars, allowing residents to roller-skate to early morning mass. Legend has it that children tie a string to their big toe and dangle it out of the window. As skaters pass by, they give the strings a gentle tug, waking the children for the service.

Sweden: A Fiery Christmas Affair

The town of Gävle sees the construction of a giant Goat statue made from straw, known as the 'Gävle Goat.' Although meant to stand proudly throughout the festive period, it often becomes an unofficial challenge to see if locals can sneak in and burn it down - a mischievous tradition that has happened more times than not.

Ukraine: Shimmering Christmas Trees

Instead of the tinsel and baubles we're familiar with, Ukrainian Christmas trees are often adorned with an unusual decoration: artificial spider webs. Rooted in an old folktale where a poor family wakes up on Christmas morning to find their previously undecorated tree covered in golden webs by a spider, this tradition is a symbol of hope and prosperity.

Australia: Beach and Barbie Christmas

Due to its southern hemisphere location, Christmas falls in summer for Australians. So, traditional winter scenes are replaced by BBQs on the beach, games of cricket, and 'Carols by Candlelight' events in parks and gardens. Santa is often portrayed surfing or riding kangaroos instead of reindeer.

Ethiopia: A Christmas Duel

Christmas vigil in Ethiopia

Celebrated on January 7th (owing to the Julian calendar), Ethiopians wear white robes and partake in a special church service on Christmas Day. Later, they engage in a game called 'Gena,' a type of hockey, said to be based on the shepherds who played it the night Jesus was born.

Greenland: Unique Christmas Delicacies

Greenland offers some unusual festive dishes. One of them is 'Kiviak,' which is made by wrapping an auk (a seabird) in seal skin, burying it for several months, and then eating its decomposed flesh. Another delicacy is 'Mattaq,' raw whale skin served with blubber.

Norway: A Spellbinding Christmas Eve

Stemming from an old belief that witches and evil spirits emerge on Christmas Eve to steal brooms and cause mischief, Norwegians hide all the brooms in their homes. It's a tradition that still prevails in some households today.

Iconic Christmas Destinations

Travelers often have a bucket list of places they'd love to visit during the holiday season. There's an undeniable magic surrounding Christmas, and some destinations seem to capture this spirit more than others. From bustling metropolises with dazzling light displays to smaller towns that feel straight out of a Christmas storybook, here are some iconic destinations to experience a Christmas like no other:

New York City, USA

large decorated Christmas tree in New York City

The Big Apple is a Christmas wonderland during the holidays. Central Park is covered in a blanket of snow, while the Rockefeller Center boasts one of the most famous Christmas trees globally. Skaters glide gracefully on the ice beneath it, creating a picturesque scene. Streets come alive with festive parades, store windows exhibit enchanting holiday displays, and you can't miss the Radio City Christmas Spectacular for an unforgettable holiday show.

Lapland, Finland

reindeer pulling red sleigh in Lapland

Often referred to as the "Home of Santa Claus," Lapland provides the ultimate Christmas experience. The snowy region offers reindeer rides, snowmobile safaris, and a chance to witness the Northern Lights. A visit to Santa Claus Village lets children and adults alike meet St. Nick in person and cross the Arctic Circle.


Christmas market in Germany

Germany is renowned for its traditional Christmas markets. Town squares across the country transform into festive bazaars, with stalls selling crafts, foods, and mulled wine. Nuremberg's Christkindlsmarkt is one of the oldest and most famous, where one can indulge in festive treats like lebkuchen and bratwurst while shopping for unique gifts.

Reykjavik, Iceland

Christmas street lights in Reykjavik

Christmas in Reykjavik is a blend of otherworldly landscapes and festive cheer. With only four hours of daylight, the city becomes a serene winter wonderland. The Yule Lads, 13 mischievous elves from Icelandic folklore, add to the festive lore, visiting homes in the lead-up to Christmas.

Cape Town, South Africa: A Christmas Like No Other

Christmas in Cape Town is a sun-soaked affair. While many parts of the world are wrapping themselves in layers and shoveling snow, Capetonians are heading to the beach, embracing the festive season in their own sun-drenched style.

colourful changing rooms in st James beach Cape Town

The iconic Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, a hub of activity all year round, becomes even more special during the Christmas season. As the sun sets, the waterfront sparkles to life with thousands of twinkling festive lights, illuminating the harbour and creating a mesmerizing scene. Strolling through this vibrant area, visitors can indulge in a spot of Christmas shopping at the annual Christmas market, where local artisans showcase their crafts, gifts, and delectable festive treats.

Another must-visit is the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, a UNESCO World Heritage site, known for its incredible biodiversity and breathtaking views of Table Mountain. During December, the gardens transform into a festive wonderland. Here, amidst the endemic flora and under the majestic shadow of Table Mountain, traditional carol services are held. Imagine sitting on the lush green lawns, with a gentle summer breeze caressing your face, as the melodious sounds of Christmas carols fill the air. It's an experience that truly captures the essence of a South African Christmas.

Beyond these iconic spots, Cape Town offers a plethora of activities for those looking to celebrate Christmas. According to City Sightseeing, there are numerous things to do in Cape Town on Christmas Day. From enjoying a festive meal at one of the city's world-renowned restaurants to taking a leisurely cruise on the city's canals, there's no shortage of ways to make your Christmas memorable. And for those who prefer a more laid-back day, the pristine beaches await. Whether it's Clifton, Camps Bay, or any of the other stunning beaches, it's the perfect place to relax, soak up the sun, and maybe even join in on a festive beach volleyball match.

Cape Town Travel further enriches the narrative of a Cape Christmas by highlighting the city's unique blend of cultures. The diverse heritage means a mix of traditions, from festive feasts that include local dishes like pickled fish and malva pudding to attending Midnight Mass at one of the city's historic churches.


The Mediterranean island of Malta celebrates Christmas with a mix of religious fervor and festive merriment. Streets and homes are beautifully adorned with nativity scenes, and churches come alive with pageants and choir recitals. Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve is particularly special, with a Maltese tradition where a child delivers the sermon.

Santa Claus, Indiana, USA

Sign welcoming people to Santa Claus in Indiana

Living up to its name, this town in Indiana celebrates Christmas year-round. The Santa Claus Post Office receives thousands of letters addressed to St. Nick, and a group of dedicated volunteers ensures each gets a response. The Santa Claus Land of Lights is the largest campground holiday light show in North America.

Valkenburg, Netherlands

cave christmas market in valkenburg in the netherlands

Valkenburg's Christmas market is unique – it's held underground! The Velvet Cave is transformed into a festive marketplace, with murals, sculptures, and an 18th-century chapel. The town also features a Christmas parade with floats and dancers, illuminating the streets with twinkling lights.

Caracas, Venezuela

A unique Christmas tradition awaits in Caracas, where locals roller-skate to early morning Mass in the week leading up to Christmas. Roads are closed to cars, ensuring safe passage for the skaters. After the service, everyone enjoys coffee and treats like 'turrón' and 'pan de jamón'.

Commercialization of Christmas

In today's rapidly evolving world, Christmas has become as much about shopping lists and bustling malls as it is about the birth of Jesus Christ and spreading cheer. The twinkling lights, elaborate window displays, and catchy holiday jingles have become indispensable parts of the season. Undeniably, the allure of gift-giving, decorations, and festive sales has been skillfully marketed, leading to an ever-growing commercial aspect of the holiday.

Beyond commercialism: Rediscovering the spirit of cheer, love, joy, and giving

Yet, there is a deeper story beneath the glossy surface of commercial Christmas. Many businesses, like Tinsel Toes Christmas Shoppe, are stepping in to redefine this narrative. Tinsel Toes, a charming Christmas shop nestled in the heart of Cape Town, stands as a testament to the notion that commercialization and genuine Christmas spirit can coexist. Founded by two sisters with a profound love for the festive season, this shop has become a beacon of authentic Christmas spirit in a world dominated by mass-produced goods. Their story speaks of a journey that began with a shared dream to recapture the true spirit of Christmas. Rooted in family tradition and handmade crafts, Tinsel Toes is a stark contrast to the faceless corporations that flood the market with generic items.

Their products, ranging from handmade Christmas creations to unique greeting cards and advent decor, emphasize quality over quantity. By sourcing many of their Christmas decorations locally and supporting artisans within South Africa, Tinsel Toes embodies the ideal of building community, supporting local and promoting sustainability, even during a season often marked by excess. For the Tinsel Toes Elves, Christmas is not merely about turning a profit; it's about creating memories, fostering connections, and celebrating the timeless values the holiday represents.


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